What it is?

How does CBT address it?

Most mental health disorders can be understood as a disfunction in both the cognition of the person as well as in behavior. CBT addresses both the cognitive component as well as the behavioral component of mental health disorders.

 

Depression:

 

Major depressive disorder affects approximately 14.8 million American adults, or about 6.7 percent of the U.S. population. While major depressive disorder can develop at any age, the median onset is 32. Major depressive disorder is more prevalent in women than in men and as many as one in 33 children and on in eight adolescents have clinical depression.

Depression can affect a person’s ability to function interpersonally, socially, as well as at work. it can affect the lives of those who suffer from it; but it can also affect their families, caregivers, employers, and coworkers as well. Overall, it has a negative impact on the functioning of society at large.

 

Symptoms of depression can include (but not be limited to) having a depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, and as indicated by either subjective account or observation by others for at least two years. In children and adolescents, mood can be irritable and duration must be at least 1 year. While depressed, symptoms can also include poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self-esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions. There can also be feelings of hopelessness.

 

Behind depression lies a lack of perceived control as well as an overall sense of helplessness and hopelessness. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) conceptualizes depression negative schemas, automatic thoughts and that treatment includes correcting the errors in this thinking. CBT treats depression by focusing on both depression’s cognitive and behavioral components. In the cognitive component of the treatment, first negative thinking and the distortions it causes is corrected. The behavioral component of treatment encompasses helps to assess how daily activities have an impact on mood and how this can improve symptoms of depression.

 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD):

 

Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the United States and affects 40 million adults. Anxiety disorders are highly treatable and yet only one-third of those suffering receive treated. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) affects 6.8 million adults, or 3.1% of the population. Women are twice as likely as men to have anxiety. One in eight people have an anxiety disorder on any given year and on in four people have an anxiety disorder in their lifetime.50% of those with anxiety disorder meet the criteria for another anxiety disorder. 75% of those with anxiety disorder meet criteria for another psychological disorder.

 

Symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder can include excessive anxiety and worry for at least 50% of one’s days. This worry can include things like family, health, finances, work, or school. The person usually finds it hard to control the worry and the worry is sustained for at least 3 months. The anxiety and worry are associated with restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge. A person can also become easily fatigued or have difficulty concentrating because of the anxiety. Irritability, muscle tension, or sleep disturbances can also be symptoms of GAD as well.

 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has been shown to effectively treat GAD. The cognitive component helps people identify and question the patterns of their thinking that can cause or trigger the feelings of anxiety. CBT can also help those who suffer from GAD question the validity of negative and automatic thoughts. The behavioral component consists of exposure and desensitization and together with the therapists those with GAD built up exposure and tolerance to anxiety provoking situations.

Panic Disorder (PD):

 

Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the United States and affects 40 million adults. Anxiety disorders are highly treatable and yet only one-third of those suffering receive treated. Panic Disorder (PD) affects 6 million people, or 2.7% of the population. Women are twice as likely to be affected as men. PD has a very high comorbidity rate with major depression.

 

Symptoms of PD include frequent panic attacks unrelated to specific situations. Panic attacks are sudden, intense episodes of apprehension, terror or feelings of impending doom. There are intense urges to flee. These symptoms reach their peak in intensity within 10 minutes. Physical symptoms can include labored breathing, heart palpitations, nausea, upset stomach, chest pains, feelings of choking and smothering, dizziness, sweating, lightheadedness, chills, heat sensations, and trembling.

 

PD can be conceptualized around common misconnects about the PD symptoms. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) identifies bodily sensations and thoughts and then comes up with alternative explanations for the thoughts. By taking a look at the evidence surrounding the panic event, CBT helps those with PD become more objective at time of greatest anxiety. CBT helps distinguish between symptoms, thoughts, and beliefs and introduces the cascade between these elements. CBT also addresses the role of escape and avoidance in maintains fear. Overall, CBT helps the patient adopt an informed and active role in treatment.

 

Addiction/Substance Use Disorder (SUD):

 

Addiction and substance use disorder has been cited as the number one health-related condition confronting our society and in the past ten years drugs has been reported as the biggest concern amongst teenagers. It has been estimated that the prevalence rate for adolescents having alcohol abuse or dependence at about 6%. It has been reported that 80% of high school students have used alcohol and 55% admit to using illicit drugs. Another survey has shown that 53% of 12th graders used some form of illicit drug

Symptoms of addiction or SUD can be conceptualized as a problematic pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. These symptoms can include the fact that the substance is taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended. There is persistent desire or unsuccessful effort to cut down or control substance use. a great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain substance, use substance, or recover from its effects. Symptoms may also include continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance. Withdrawal or tolerance to the substance is also an indicator of addiction or SUD.

 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is especially beneficial for those with addiction or SUD since it focuses on addressing hopelessness, which many addicts experience. It also provides those with SUD and addiction a sense of control. CBT’s strategies may include relapse prevention through the use of homework, bibliotherapy, guided imagery, role-play, and self-monitoring. Those with SUD and addiction need to identify situations that may trigger a relapse, avoid triggers to relapse, substitute rewards as well as developing a coping plan an realistic long-term goals.

Bipolar:

 

Bipolar disorder affects approximately 5.7 million Americans, or about 2.6% of the population. The medical age of onset for bipolar disorder is 25 years of age. An equal number of men and women develop bipolar illness. Bipolar disorder is the sixth leading cause of disability in the world. Bipolar disorder results in 9.2 years reduction in expected lie span and as many as one in five patients with bipolar disorder completes suicide.

 

Symptoms of bipolar include mood wings and intense emotion states that occur in episodes. One one end, called the manic episode, symptoms include irritability, goal directive activities, high risk activities, decreased need for sleep, pressure of speech, cognitive hyper-functioning such as grandiose delusions, inflated self-worth, flight of ideas or racing thoughts). This manic period lasts more than 1 week. Mood will then swing into a depressive episode.

 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) focuses on several goals for successful management of bipolar symptoms. Improved functioning is an overall goal. Recognizing the early warning signs of mood and mood swings is another important function of CBT. Charting mood as well as relapse prevention are also goals of CBT for bipolar disorder as well.

 

 

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD):

 

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) occurs in approximately 2.3% of the population between the ages of 18-54 years of age. In the U.S. nearly 3.3 million people have OCD. The age of onset is typically between 6-15 years of age for men and 20-29 years of age for women. It is a chronic and long-lasting disorder in which symptoms can worsen due to stress, illness, and fatigue.

 

Those who suffer from OCD may have symptoms of obsession, compulsions, or both. These symptoms may include obsessions that surround fear of germs or contamination, unwanted forbidden or taboo thoughts involving sex, religion, or harm. Obsessive thoughts may include aggressive thoughts towards others or self or they may include having things be symmetrical or in a perfect order. The other half of OCD are the compulsions, which are repetitive behaviors that someone suffering OCD feels the urge to do in order to respond to an obsessive thought. These can include excessive cleaning and/or hand-washing, ordering and arranging things in a particular and precise way, or repeatedly checking on things or counting things.

 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) uses a technique called Exposure and Response Prevention in reducing compulsive behaviors in OCD. Those with OCD confront their fears surrounding their obsession in order to discontinue the compulsions as an escape response. Through exposure to the obsessive thought or scenario, CBT therapists work with the patient to desensitize them to the feared obsession.

 

Anorexia Nervosa:

 

Up to 30 million people of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder in the U.S. 86% of people in the U.S. report onset of eating disorder by age 20 and 43% report onset between ages of 16 and 20.6. Women are more likely than men to develop an eating disorder where only an estimated 5 to 15% of pole with anorexia or bulimia are male. 25% of college-aged women engage in binging and purging as well as a weight-management technique.

 

Symptoms of anorexia are seeing oneself as overweight even when dangerously underweight. Those suffering from anorexia typically weigh themselves repeatedly. They also severely restrict the amount of food they eat and, when they do eat, usually only eat very small quantities of only certain foods. There is a relentless pursuit of thinness and an unwillingness to maintain a normal or healthy weight. An intense fear of gaining weight is also a symptom as well. Anorexia has the highest mortality rate of any meant heath disorder.

 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for adults with eating disorders and can also be adapted for adolescents. CBT focuses on the important role that thoughts and actions play in maintaining an eating disorder. Thoughts (cognitive factors) can include an over-evaluation of weight and shape, negative body image, core beliefs about self-worth, negative self-evaluation or perfectionism. Actions (behavioral factors) include weight-control methods such as dietary restraint, binge-eating and purging, body checking or body avoidance. CBT stresses education and skills training that help both the behavioral phase and the cognitive phase by formulating a plan for stabilizing eating and eliminating emotional intensity during this phase of treatment. Since thoughts and beliefs perpetuate behavioral, these are addressed in therapy as well.

 

 

 

Bulimia Nervosa:

 

Up to 30 million people of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder in the U.S. 86% of people in the U.S. report onset of eating disorder by age 20 and 43% report onset between ages of 16 and 20.6. Women are more likely than men to develop an eating disorder where only an estimated 5 to 15% of pole with anorexia or bulimia are male. 25% of college-aged women engage in binging and purging as well as a weight-management technique.

 

Symptoms of bulimia include recurrent and frequent episodes of eating unusually large amounts of food and feelings a lack of control over these episodes. This binge-eating is followed by a purging episodes that may include vomiting, excessive use of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise, or a combination of these behaviors. Unlike anorexia, those with bulimia usually maintain what is considered a healthy or relatively normal weight.

 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for adults with eating disorders and can also be adapted for adolescents. CBT focuses on the important role that thoughts and actions play in maintaining an eating disorder. Thoughts (cognitive factors) can include an over-evaluation of weight and shape, negative body image, core beliefs about self-worth, negative self-evaluation or perfectionism. Actions (behavioral factors) include weight-control methods such as dietary restraint, binge-eating and purging, body checking or body avoidance. CBT stresses education and skills training that help both the behavioral phase and the cognitive phase by formulating a plan for stabilizing eating and eliminating emotional intensity during this phase of treatment. Since thoughts and beliefs perpetuate behavioral, these are addressed in therapy as well.

 

 

 

ADHD:

 

Approximately 11% of children ages 4-17 have been diagnosed with ADHD. On average, in a classroom of 30 students, 1 in 3 children have ADHD. The rate of emotional development for children with ADHD is 30% slower than their non-ADHD peers. This translates out to roughly 6.4 million children who had ADHD. Males are three times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than females. During their lifetimes, 12.9% of men will be diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD is not just a childhood disorder and roughly 4% of American adults over the age of 18 deal with ADHD on a daily basis.

 

Symptoms of ADHD can include inattention and hyperactivity as well as impulsivity. Inattention can be defined as overlooked of missed details as well as making careless mistakes in schoolwork or other activities. It can also be be avoiding or disliking tasks that require sustained mental effort such as school work or homework. Hyper-activity can be defined as, in children, fidgetiness or squirming in seats, being unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly, blurting out an answer before a question has been completed, or having trouble waiting his or her turn for an activity.

 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) can assist with ADHD and the way that transient thoughts and the enduring beliefs that one has about oneself and the world influence how one feels and acts. CBT can help those suffering with ADHD use their own cognitive tools for staying organized, focused, and improving their ability to control and and get along with others. Overall, those who participate in CBT can become better organized and attentive as well as learning the necessary skills for learning to cope with ADHD in daily life.

 

 

Health Anxiety:

 

The prevalence of health anxiety affects roughly 4.5% of the general population and is associated with clinically significant distress. Other studies put the percentage at nearly 10% of the general population. In primary care settings, roughly 4.5% of the patients experienced some form of health anxiety.

 

Symptoms of health anxiety can include being preoccupied wit having a serious illness because of body symptoms as well as distress over this preoccupation. This preoccupation also negatively effects all areas of life including family life, social life and work. Health anxiety can also lead a person to carry out constant self-examinations and self-diagnosis or to experience disbelief over a diagnosis from a doctor. An individual with health anxiety can also feel unconvinced by doctor’s reassurance that one’s health is fine. Finally, someone experiencing health anxiety can feel the constant need for reassurance from doctors, family and friends that they are fine, even if they do not really believe what they are being told.

 

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many people with heath anxiety. It involves working with the therapist to identify the thoughts and emotions that are experienced and the things done to cope with them. The overall aim is changing unhealthy thoughts an behaviors that maintain health anxiety. This is done by learning what seems make symptoms worse, developing methods of coping with symptoms, and keeping oneself more active, even if symptoms still exist.

 

 

 

Chronic Pain Management:

 

Roughly 100 million Americans suffer from chronic pain which can be mild or excruciating, episodic or continuous, inconvenient or totally incapacitating. With chronic pain, signals of pain remain active in the nervous system for months or even years and this pain takes a toll both mentally, emotionally, and physical on a person.

 

Symptoms of chronic pain can include mild to sever pain that does not go away or pain that may be described as shooting, burning, arching, or electrical. It can also be accompanied by feelings of discomfort, soreness, tightness, or stiffness. The most common sources of chronic pain come from headaches, joint pain, pain from injury, or backaches. Other kinds can include tendinitis, sinus pain, carpal tunnel, or pain affecting specific parts of the body such as the shoulders, pelvis, or neck. Nerve pain, also called generalized muscle pain, can also develop into a chronic condition as well.

 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) can help provide chronic pain management in several ways. It can help change the way an individual views their pain by changing thoughts, emotions, and behavior related to the pain as well as improving coping strategies. CBT helps put the discomfort associated with chronic pain into a better context. CBT can also change the physical response in the brain that makes the pain worse. Since pain cases stress, and that stress affects pain control chemicals in the brain, CBT reduces the arousal that impacts theses chemicals.

 

 

Marriage:

 

The percentage of married individuals who respond that their marriages are “very happy” has gradually declined over the last four decades. The most recent studies show that 63.1% of men and 60.7% of women classify their marriage as “unhappy”. The American divorce rate is nearly twice what it was in 1960; current estimates suggest that 40-50% of recent marriages will end in separation or divorce. The percentage of children that experience parental divorce by the age of 12 is estimated to be about 24%.

 

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) conceptualizes healthy couple relationships by one that has spouses each contributing to the growth, development, well-being, and needs fulfillment of each partner. A healthy relationship fosters pattern’s psychological growth and maturity, development, and advancement of each other’s career aspirations and promotions of physical health and well-being of each individual. Conversely, the distressed relationship is characterized by a scarcity of positive outcomes averrable for each partner as well as deficits in communicant and problem-solving skills. There is also a high frequency of native or punishing exchanges that are reciprocated by both partners. Those in a distressed relationship are also more likely to track negative behavior selectively in the other person as well.

 

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) seeks to identify the concerns and potential areas of enrichment/growth for which a couple has sought assistance and to clarify the cognitive, behavioral, and affective facts associated with the couple s a dyad. CBT uses a combination of guided behavior change and skills-based interventions to bring about the desired outcomes in treatment.

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